FAQ

GENERAL QUESTIONS

WHERE ARE EVANS COOLANTS AVAILABLE?

Evans Coolants are available through dealers across South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia. Where to buy.

WHICH AUTOMOTIVE COOLANTS ARE WATER-BASED?

All other commercially available automotive coolants are water-based, or meant to be diluted with water. Evans is the only manufacturer of waterless engine coolant. All Evans coolants are waterless.

ABOUT FLAMMABILITY

Evans is occasionally asked how the flammability of Evans Waterless Coolants compares with the flammability of conventional antifreeze mixtures that are generally half glycol and half water. On balance, Evans Waterless Coolants are not more fire-prone than standard water-based antifreezes.

When one researches the causes of vehicle fires, there are these conclusions:

  • Neither antifreeze concentrate (without water) nor water-glycol antifreeze coolant is likely to be a first-fuel in a vehicle fire, but both can be ignited.
  • Many factors have to be just right for ethylene glycol (EG) to be ignited, and it is unlikely that all of the factors present in laboratory tests will be present in a vehicle to enable combustion to occur.
  • “Ideal” conditions are present in a laboratory when the flash points or fire point of liquids are determined and one needs to be careful in extrapolating the results to vehicle situations.
  • For ignition to happen under non-ideal conditions, the hot surface metal temperatures for auto-ignition to occur (one mode of ignition) need to be higher than would be present under normal engine operation.
  • In some instances, the temperatures need to be higher than even those seen in malfunctioning engines and in vehicles in which the engine has been overloaded for an extended period of time.
  • Ignition of EG by a vehicle’s electrical system is unlikely because of the very specific circumstances that must exist.
  • Although the presence of water in water-based antifreeze may provide some small measure of a quenching effect on an open flame, the water portion is generally short lived, as it is quickly vaporized and what remains is primarily glycol, which can ignite.
  • One of the most important conclusions drawn by forensic investigators of vehicle fires is: Ethylene glycol coolants will not auto-ignite on the metal surfaces in a motor vehicle and cause a vehicle fire, except under very specific and unlikely conditions.

Dispelling Myths:
Most experts agree that water-based antifreeze is just as flammable as antifreeze concentrate under the right conditions. Timothy C. Finley is a Vehicular Forensic Reconstruction Specialist. His research has helped fire departments, police, and insurance companies determine what caused a fire. When Mr. Finley was asked about the flammability of antifreeze his response was as follows:

“As a forensic investigator of vehicle fires for nearly twenty years, the question of flammability of coolant has arisen many times and has been the issue of a number of lawsuits in the past. In the mid 80’s I observed a number of vehicle fires whose causes could only be explained by the ignition of engine coolant. At that time, there was no data available on the subject. I therefore chose to conduct testing to determine if pure antifreeze or antifreeze mixed with water in a 50% solution (coolant) would ignite or burn. I found that both would auto-ignite (ignite outside the presence of a spark or flame) on a hot surface. Surface temperatures of 650 degrees F to 750 degrees F would cause auto-ignition. Vapors at lower temperatures would ignite from a spark or flame. Heat sources containing moremass facilitated the auto-ignition process. I have repeated this testing a number of times over the years.”

From: Engine Coolant is it Flammable? http://garrett-engineers.com/2005/10/what-auto-fluids-burn

Cleveland Open Cup Test of Ethylene Glycol-Based Engine Coolant Mixtures
Water % V.S. Flash Point

Chart from: http://www.reifire.net/text/ethylene.pdf

Evans Advantage of a Low System Pressure:

A positive benefit that Evans Coolant provides as it relates to flammability comes from the reduced system pressure associated with the use of waterless coolants. Unlike their water-based antifreeze counterparts, waterless coolants operate with minimal system pressure, meaning that if the cooling system were compromised, hot coolant would not violently erupt, as would be the case with typically pressurized water-based coolant. If the leak were just a pinhole, there would be no atomized spray, as would be the case if the pressure were at typical water-based coolant values.

The vapor pressure of 50/50 weight percent EG and water mixture at 230F:  838 mm Hg

The vapor pressure of an Evans Waterless Coolant at 230F:  24.6 mm Hg

Based on third party flash point testing and years of anecdotal experience, waterless coolants present no more danger as it relates to flammability than water-based coolants under the same conditions. At its core, Evans Cooling Systems, Inc. is a technology based company whose goal is to produce products that are safe, effective and that provide a real benefit to the end user.

PROPERTIES

WHAT IS THE FLASH POINT OF EVANS COOLANT?

The flash point (the lowest temperature at which a combustible substance produces sufficient vapor near its surface to generate an ignitable mixture with air) of Evans waterless coolant is similar to that of conventional water-based coolant, i.e., 248 °F/120°C.

OVER TIME, WILL EVANS COOLANT ABSORB WATER?

Evans waterless coolant is hygroscopic, which means it has the ability to absorb moisture. As such, containers of unused coolant should be kept tightly closed. In the cooling system, Evans waterless coolant should not absorb a significant amount of moisture from the atmosphere as long as a conventional pressure cap is used. Under normal circumstances, the cap should not open, allowing air to enter the system.

INSTALLATION

HOW DO I INSTALL EVANS WATERLESS COOLANT IN MY VEHICLE?

It is important to thoroughly remove all of the old coolant before installing Evans waterless coolant. See our installation information for complete instructions..

DO I DO I REALLY NEED TO USE PREP FLUID? 

Evans recommends using Prep Fluid for all installations to ensure removal of all remaining water-based coolant from the cooling system before installing Evans waterless coolant. In a new or “dry” engine, it is not necessary to use Prep Fluid.

HOW WILL I MEASURE WATER CONTENT AFTER INSTALLATION OF EVANS WATERLESS COOLANT?

A refractometer can be used to measure the final water content after conversion to Evans waterless coolant and uses a Brix scale. Refractometers are most commonly used by fleets or conversion facilities where installations are regularly performed.

WHAT HAPPENS IF I HAVE WATER IN MY COOLING SYSTEM AFTER INSTALLING EVANS WATERLESS COOLANT IN MY VEHICLE?

It is important to closely follow directions during the initial Evans waterless coolant installation. A water content higher than 3% will lower the boiling point, and may reduce the corrosion and pump cavitation protection of Evans waterless coolant. If a water test shows there is between 3% and 5% water in the coolant, the corrective action is to drain half of the system volume and add back new Evans waterless coolant. This will reduce the water content to an acceptable range. If the measured water content is greater than 5%, the system must be drained and refilled with new Evans waterless coolant.

DO I NEED TO CHANGE MY RADIATOR CAP WHEN USING EVANS WATERLESS COOLANT?

A different radiator/pressure cap is not required with Evans waterless coolant. A water-based coolant generally requires anywhere from a 7 to 15 psig pressure cap. Higher pressure raises the boiling point of water-based coolant. Evans waterless coolant expands slightly as it warms, creating pressure of 3–5 psig, and the existing cap does not need to be changed.

OPERATION

DOES EVANS COOLANT REQUIRE PERIODIC MAINTENANCE?

No periodic addition of supplemental coolant additives is required, nor should any ever be added. Evans recommends inspecting the cooling system at least once a year to ensure that no contamination of the coolant has occurred.

IF I HAVE A LEAK OR OTHER EVENT WHERE I NEED TO TOP OFF OR REFILL MY COOLANT AND EVANS IS NOT IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE, WHAT CAN I SAFELY ADD TO THE COOLING SYSTEM? 

With Evans waterless coolant, the likelihood of coolant loss and the need for topping up are greatly reduced. In the event that there is significant coolant loss from the system during operation and no Evans waterless coolant is available to fill the system, water or water-based coolant may be used. However, repairs should be made as soon as possible, and the system should be drained, purged and re-filled with Evans waterless coolant.

WHAT IF I AM USING EVANS WATERLESS COOLANT AND I GET A LEAK?

Leaks should be repaired. Stop-leak type products are not intended to be permanent repairs, but they may be used as a temporary measure. Carefully follow the instructions on the stop leak product label. Overuse may clog radiator and heater core passageways.

WHAT EFFECT WILL MIXING EVANS COOLANT WITH WATER OR WATER-BASED COOLANT HAVE ON MY COOLING SYSTEM

In the short term, no performance issues should result from mixing a small amount of conventional coolant or straight water with Evans waterless coolant. However, the high boiling point and corrosion protection of Evans waterless coolant will be reduced, and the coolant should be replaced as soon as possible.

HOW DO EVANS COOLANTS CONTROL ENGINE METAL TEMPERATURES AS COMPARED TO WATER-BASED COOLANTS UNDER STRESSED CONDITIONS?

Water-based coolant boils at a temperature only slightly higher than the operating temperature of the coolant. The boiling point of water-based coolant is somewhat above the boiling point of water for the pressure of the system. Localized boiling releases water vapor that can only condense into coolant that is colder than the boiling point of water. Any vapor that doesn’t condense occupies a volume that displaces liquid coolant. Water vapor is a very poor conductor of heat. Hot engine metal, insulated by water vapor, becomes an engine “hot spot” that can cause pre ignition and detonation. In contrast, the boiling point of Evans waterless coolant is much higher than the bulk coolant temperature and any locally generated vapor condenses immediately into the surrounding bulk coolant. There is no persistent vapor to insulate between hot metal and the liquid coolant. Liquid coolant is in contact with all of the coolant jacket at all times, providing a path of excellent heat transfer away from the hot metal.

HOW DOES EVANS COOLANT PREVENT AFTER-BOIL?

After-boil occurs in an automotive engine after engine shutdown when the heat in the system cannot be rejected to the air because the coolant is no longer being circulated to the radiator. A coolant near its boiling point will not be able to absorb additional heat without boiling and being forced out through the pressure cap. Conversely, the huge separation between the operating temperature and the boiling point of Evans waterless coolant enables the coolant to act as a heat sink into which heat from hot metal parts of the system can be readily dissipated. Boiling is avoided and there is no build-up of pressure to force coolant out of the system. Stresses on cooling system components are avoided because metal temperatures are kept under control.

HOW DOES EVANS COOLANT PREVENT WATER PUMP CAVITATION?

Evans waterless coolant inhibits vapor development in the pump over a broad range of temperatures. With Evans waterless coolant, the suction side of the coolant pump is never at a low enough pressure to flash vaporize the coolant. So, the pump never gets vapor-bound and has the ability to pump coolant over broad range of temperatures. No vapor bubbles are formed to collapse against the metal and cause cavitation erosion damage to the pump.

WILL EVANS COOLANTLOWER THE OPERATING TEMPERATURE OF MY ENGINE?

The effect of Evans waterless coolant on cooling system temperatures will depend on the engine and cooling system configuration, as well as driving conditions. Vehicles running under normal operating conditions should show either no change or a slight increase in temperature. In high horsepower applications, the temperature effect of running Evans waterless coolant will depend on the engine and cooling system components.

IS EVANS ADVOCATING OPERATING ENGINES AT HIGHER TEMPERATURES?

Not really. With Evans waterless coolant, operating temperatures may be modestly higher than those of water-based coolant, depending on driving conditions and whether the vehicle is stock or configured as high-performance. When the engine is stressed, the coolant absorbs more heat and temperatures rise. This is not a concern when using Evans waterless coolant. The combination of the high boiling point of Evans waterless coolant and a correctly-sized cooling system means that an increase in temperature can be accommodated without cooling system failure.

IF I INCREASE MY ENGINE HORSEPOWER AND WANT ADDITIONAL COOLING CAPACITY, WHAT SUGGESTIONS DO YOU HAVE FOR RADIATORS?

In general, Evans recommends single-pass radiators as they have less flow resistance than multi-pass radiators.  The following are minimum radiator core suggestions:

  • 300HP or less without AC……………………4 rows: ½” tube copper/brass
  • 300HP to 400HP with AC……………………2 rows: 1” tube aluminum
  • 400HP to 600HP…………………………………2 rows: 1.25” tube, aluminum
  • 600HP and above……………………………….3 rows: 1” tube aluminum
    OR     2 rows: 1.5” tube aluminum
GENERAL QUESTIONS

GENERAL QUESTIONS

WHERE ARE EVANS COOLANTS AVAILABLE?

Evans Coolants are available through dealers across South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia. Where to buy.

WHICH AUTOMOTIVE COOLANTS ARE WATER-BASED?

All other commercially available automotive coolants are water-based, or meant to be diluted with water. Evans is the only manufacturer of waterless engine coolant. All Evans coolants are waterless.

ABOUT FLAMMABILITY

ABOUT FLAMMABILITY

Evans is occasionally asked how the flammability of Evans Waterless Coolants compares with the flammability of conventional antifreeze mixtures that are generally half glycol and half water. On balance, Evans Waterless Coolants are not more fire-prone than standard water-based antifreezes.

When one researches the causes of vehicle fires, there are these conclusions:

  • Neither antifreeze concentrate (without water) nor water-glycol antifreeze coolant is likely to be a first-fuel in a vehicle fire, but both can be ignited.
  • Many factors have to be just right for ethylene glycol (EG) to be ignited, and it is unlikely that all of the factors present in laboratory tests will be present in a vehicle to enable combustion to occur.
  • “Ideal” conditions are present in a laboratory when the flash points or fire point of liquids are determined and one needs to be careful in extrapolating the results to vehicle situations.
  • For ignition to happen under non-ideal conditions, the hot surface metal temperatures for auto-ignition to occur (one mode of ignition) need to be higher than would be present under normal engine operation.
  • In some instances, the temperatures need to be higher than even those seen in malfunctioning engines and in vehicles in which the engine has been overloaded for an extended period of time.
  • Ignition of EG by a vehicle’s electrical system is unlikely because of the very specific circumstances that must exist.
  • Although the presence of water in water-based antifreeze may provide some small measure of a quenching effect on an open flame, the water portion is generally short lived, as it is quickly vaporized and what remains is primarily glycol, which can ignite.
  • One of the most important conclusions drawn by forensic investigators of vehicle fires is: Ethylene glycol coolants will not auto-ignite on the metal surfaces in a motor vehicle and cause a vehicle fire, except under very specific and unlikely conditions.

Dispelling Myths:
Most experts agree that water-based antifreeze is just as flammable as antifreeze concentrate under the right conditions. Timothy C. Finley is a Vehicular Forensic Reconstruction Specialist. His research has helped fire departments, police, and insurance companies determine what caused a fire. When Mr. Finley was asked about the flammability of antifreeze his response was as follows:

“As a forensic investigator of vehicle fires for nearly twenty years, the question of flammability of coolant has arisen many times and has been the issue of a number of lawsuits in the past. In the mid 80’s I observed a number of vehicle fires whose causes could only be explained by the ignition of engine coolant. At that time, there was no data available on the subject. I therefore chose to conduct testing to determine if pure antifreeze or antifreeze mixed with water in a 50% solution (coolant) would ignite or burn. I found that both would auto-ignite (ignite outside the presence of a spark or flame) on a hot surface. Surface temperatures of 650 degrees F to 750 degrees F would cause auto-ignition. Vapors at lower temperatures would ignite from a spark or flame. Heat sources containing moremass facilitated the auto-ignition process. I have repeated this testing a number of times over the years.”

From: Engine Coolant is it Flammable? http://garrett-engineers.com/2005/10/what-auto-fluids-burn

Cleveland Open Cup Test of Ethylene Glycol-Based Engine Coolant Mixtures
Water % V.S. Flash Point

Chart from: http://www.reifire.net/text/ethylene.pdf

Evans Advantage of a Low System Pressure:

A positive benefit that Evans Coolant provides as it relates to flammability comes from the reduced system pressure associated with the use of waterless coolants. Unlike their water-based antifreeze counterparts, waterless coolants operate with minimal system pressure, meaning that if the cooling system were compromised, hot coolant would not violently erupt, as would be the case with typically pressurized water-based coolant. If the leak were just a pinhole, there would be no atomized spray, as would be the case if the pressure were at typical water-based coolant values.

The vapor pressure of 50/50 weight percent EG and water mixture at 230F:  838 mm Hg

The vapor pressure of an Evans Waterless Coolant at 230F:  24.6 mm Hg

Based on third party flash point testing and years of anecdotal experience, waterless coolants present no more danger as it relates to flammability than water-based coolants under the same conditions. At its core, Evans Cooling Systems, Inc. is a technology based company whose goal is to produce products that are safe, effective and that provide a real benefit to the end user.

PROPERTIES

PROPERTIES

WHAT IS THE FLASH POINT OF EVANS COOLANT?

The flash point (the lowest temperature at which a combustible substance produces sufficient vapor near its surface to generate an ignitable mixture with air) of Evans waterless coolant is similar to that of conventional water-based coolant, i.e., 248 °F/120°C.

OVER TIME, WILL EVANS COOLANT ABSORB WATER?

Evans waterless coolant is hygroscopic, which means it has the ability to absorb moisture. As such, containers of unused coolant should be kept tightly closed. In the cooling system, Evans waterless coolant should not absorb a significant amount of moisture from the atmosphere as long as a conventional pressure cap is used. Under normal circumstances, the cap should not open, allowing air to enter the system.

INSTALLATION

INSTALLATION

HOW DO I INSTALL EVANS WATERLESS COOLANT IN MY VEHICLE?

It is important to thoroughly remove all of the old coolant before installing Evans waterless coolant. See our installation information for complete instructions..

DO I DO I REALLY NEED TO USE PREP FLUID? 

Evans recommends using Prep Fluid for all installations to ensure removal of all remaining water-based coolant from the cooling system before installing Evans waterless coolant. In a new or “dry” engine, it is not necessary to use Prep Fluid.

HOW WILL I MEASURE WATER CONTENT AFTER INSTALLATION OF EVANS WATERLESS COOLANT?

A refractometer can be used to measure the final water content after conversion to Evans waterless coolant and uses a Brix scale. Refractometers are most commonly used by fleets or conversion facilities where installations are regularly performed.

WHAT HAPPENS IF I HAVE WATER IN MY COOLING SYSTEM AFTER INSTALLING EVANS WATERLESS COOLANT IN MY VEHICLE?

It is important to closely follow directions during the initial Evans waterless coolant installation. A water content higher than 3% will lower the boiling point, and may reduce the corrosion and pump cavitation protection of Evans waterless coolant. If a water test shows there is between 3% and 5% water in the coolant, the corrective action is to drain half of the system volume and add back new Evans waterless coolant. This will reduce the water content to an acceptable range. If the measured water content is greater than 5%, the system must be drained and refilled with new Evans waterless coolant.

DO I NEED TO CHANGE MY RADIATOR CAP WHEN USING EVANS WATERLESS COOLANT?

A different radiator/pressure cap is not required with Evans waterless coolant. A water-based coolant generally requires anywhere from a 7 to 15 psig pressure cap. Higher pressure raises the boiling point of water-based coolant. Evans waterless coolant expands slightly as it warms, creating pressure of 3–5 psig, and the existing cap does not need to be changed.

OPERATION

OPERATION

DOES EVANS COOLANT REQUIRE PERIODIC MAINTENANCE?

No periodic addition of supplemental coolant additives is required, nor should any ever be added. Evans recommends inspecting the cooling system at least once a year to ensure that no contamination of the coolant has occurred.

IF I HAVE A LEAK OR OTHER EVENT WHERE I NEED TO TOP OFF OR REFILL MY COOLANT AND EVANS IS NOT IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE, WHAT CAN I SAFELY ADD TO THE COOLING SYSTEM? 

With Evans waterless coolant, the likelihood of coolant loss and the need for topping up are greatly reduced. In the event that there is significant coolant loss from the system during operation and no Evans waterless coolant is available to fill the system, water or water-based coolant may be used. However, repairs should be made as soon as possible, and the system should be drained, purged and re-filled with Evans waterless coolant.

WHAT IF I AM USING EVANS WATERLESS COOLANT AND I GET A LEAK?

Leaks should be repaired. Stop-leak type products are not intended to be permanent repairs, but they may be used as a temporary measure. Carefully follow the instructions on the stop leak product label. Overuse may clog radiator and heater core passageways.

WHAT EFFECT WILL MIXING EVANS COOLANT WITH WATER OR WATER-BASED COOLANT HAVE ON MY COOLING SYSTEM

In the short term, no performance issues should result from mixing a small amount of conventional coolant or straight water with Evans waterless coolant. However, the high boiling point and corrosion protection of Evans waterless coolant will be reduced, and the coolant should be replaced as soon as possible.

HOW DO EVANS COOLANTS CONTROL ENGINE METAL TEMPERATURES AS COMPARED TO WATER-BASED COOLANTS UNDER STRESSED CONDITIONS?

Water-based coolant boils at a temperature only slightly higher than the operating temperature of the coolant. The boiling point of water-based coolant is somewhat above the boiling point of water for the pressure of the system. Localized boiling releases water vapor that can only condense into coolant that is colder than the boiling point of water. Any vapor that doesn’t condense occupies a volume that displaces liquid coolant. Water vapor is a very poor conductor of heat. Hot engine metal, insulated by water vapor, becomes an engine “hot spot” that can cause pre ignition and detonation. In contrast, the boiling point of Evans waterless coolant is much higher than the bulk coolant temperature and any locally generated vapor condenses immediately into the surrounding bulk coolant. There is no persistent vapor to insulate between hot metal and the liquid coolant. Liquid coolant is in contact with all of the coolant jacket at all times, providing a path of excellent heat transfer away from the hot metal.

HOW DOES EVANS COOLANT PREVENT AFTER-BOIL?

After-boil occurs in an automotive engine after engine shutdown when the heat in the system cannot be rejected to the air because the coolant is no longer being circulated to the radiator. A coolant near its boiling point will not be able to absorb additional heat without boiling and being forced out through the pressure cap. Conversely, the huge separation between the operating temperature and the boiling point of Evans waterless coolant enables the coolant to act as a heat sink into which heat from hot metal parts of the system can be readily dissipated. Boiling is avoided and there is no build-up of pressure to force coolant out of the system. Stresses on cooling system components are avoided because metal temperatures are kept under control.

HOW DOES EVANS COOLANT PREVENT WATER PUMP CAVITATION?

Evans waterless coolant inhibits vapor development in the pump over a broad range of temperatures. With Evans waterless coolant, the suction side of the coolant pump is never at a low enough pressure to flash vaporize the coolant. So, the pump never gets vapor-bound and has the ability to pump coolant over broad range of temperatures. No vapor bubbles are formed to collapse against the metal and cause cavitation erosion damage to the pump.

WILL EVANS COOLANTLOWER THE OPERATING TEMPERATURE OF MY ENGINE?

The effect of Evans waterless coolant on cooling system temperatures will depend on the engine and cooling system configuration, as well as driving conditions. Vehicles running under normal operating conditions should show either no change or a slight increase in temperature. In high horsepower applications, the temperature effect of running Evans waterless coolant will depend on the engine and cooling system components.

IS EVANS ADVOCATING OPERATING ENGINES AT HIGHER TEMPERATURES?

Not really. With Evans waterless coolant, operating temperatures may be modestly higher than those of water-based coolant, depending on driving conditions and whether the vehicle is stock or configured as high-performance. When the engine is stressed, the coolant absorbs more heat and temperatures rise. This is not a concern when using Evans waterless coolant. The combination of the high boiling point of Evans waterless coolant and a correctly-sized cooling system means that an increase in temperature can be accommodated without cooling system failure.

IF I INCREASE MY ENGINE HORSEPOWER AND WANT ADDITIONAL COOLING CAPACITY, WHAT SUGGESTIONS DO YOU HAVE FOR RADIATORS?

In general, Evans recommends single-pass radiators as they have less flow resistance than multi-pass radiators.  The following are minimum radiator core suggestions:

  • 300HP or less without AC……………………4 rows: ½” tube copper/brass
  • 300HP to 400HP with AC……………………2 rows: 1” tube aluminum
  • 400HP to 600HP…………………………………2 rows: 1.25” tube, aluminum
  • 600HP and above……………………………….3 rows: 1” tube aluminum
    OR     2 rows: 1.5” tube aluminum